Last week I wrote a short piece about bats, which was published on my employer’s website. I was inspired by Halloween, but mainly I wished to talk about something dear to my heart: anticoagulants.
Most of my master’s dissertation revolved around mosquito molecules and the design of anti-clotting drugs. Mosquitos and bats do have a lot in common. You get a Halloween treat if you guessed its because both have a blood-based diet. Below is an excerpt (property of Owen Software) of the post I wrote for work:
The bad reputation of bats stems from their blood-filled diet, even though the vast majority of bat species eat insects or fruit. Out of more than a thousand species, only one drinks blood from other mammals: the aptly named “common vampire bat” (Desmodus rotundus), which preys on cows, pigs, or horses. But did you know these blood-sucking creatures can help scientists design new drugs?Medical conditions like heart disease and stroke are caused when blood flow is interrupted, in many cases because of a blood clot lodged in an artery. Blood coagulation (or clotting) is a natural process in which blood clots plug wounds and help us recover from injuries and even prevent us from bleeding to death. One way to slow down the clotting process in stroke patients is to dose them with a class of molecules called anticoagulants. Besides halting coagulation, these molecules also dissolve the clot and boost blood flow.Given the vampire bat’s need for blood, it might seem counterintuitive that those animals can be a source of drugs for heart disease and stroke. Through the course of evolution, vampire bats have developed their own natural anticoagulants. Their saliva is full of anticoagulant molecules that prevent their host’s blood from clotting and allow the bat to drink it. This ingenious feeding solution is not a novelty: in the animal kingdom, many other parasitic species have developed similar mechanisms (e.g, mosquitos, leeches, and ticks). Molecules from the bat’s saliva are the inspiration for new anti-stroke drugs. (…) Fittingly, scientists have paid homage to Halloween when choosing a name for a bat anticoagulant: they called it draculin.